With a total length of 1,318km, Beijing-Shanghai high speed railway (HSR for short) is the longest high speed line successfully built in one phase of project. The reason the project is unprecedentedly challenging and arduous is that continuous high speed operation for long distance has been remaining an unsolved problem in the railway sector around the world. With unremitting effort of both the research and construction people in R&D and innovation over the last 20 years, the Chinese standard system for 350km/h HSR has been established and remarkable achievements have been demonstrated by the sound and reliable infrastructure, significantly enhanced key technologies and equipment, advanced technologies for construction, management and safe operation and technical standards of independent intellectual property rights. Major innovations include:

1. Breakthrough made in key technologies for HSR infrastructure construction in  complicated engineering environment. Controlled the technologies for construction of complex bridges, such as complex structure like the Yangtze River bridge running for high speed, crossing over deep water with long span and six tracks; innovated the construction technology of  CWR on ballastless track on long viaduct and the settlement control technology of composite subgrade for rigid pile; established the technologies for large comprehensive transport hub enabling efficient and coordinated operation of different transport modes; built high tension OCS system, studied and developed contact wire with high-strength and high-conductivity; established the standard system and technology for construction of 350km/h HSR.

2. The development of the new generation high-speed EMUS running at 350km/h. China has proposed the dynamics theory for coupling system of HSR; made breakthrough in the key technologies for pneumatic performance, bogie and twin pantograghs for current collection for extremely long trains; established a complete set of technology for design-manufacture-verification-assessment-optimization of the whole train, greatly improved the innovation capacity for major equipment and built up the technical standard for high speed train.

3. Development of the HSR CTCS-3 train control system. solutions have been found for critical technical issues, such as dynamic control curve model for high speed train, redundancy in wireless coverage for railways sharing a section, and interoperability with conventional railways; developed the key equipment for train control system; established the technical system for design-manufacture-integration and assessment.

4. Innovation on HSR testing, verification and system integration technology. System inspection verification for continuous operation at speed of 350km/h for the whole line is carried out; formed the standard of HSR completed dynamic inspection and acceptance and methods of system integration; carried out the comprehensive test for 380km/h for the first time; researched and explored the rules of system coupling effect for train-line-bridge-network and the adaptability of each system at higher speed.

5. A comprehensive HSR standard system including 149 construction standards, 22 technical specifications, 768 product standards as well as operation and maintenance standards. On the basis of existing technical, managerial and operational standards, a standard system for construction and management has been put in place. The system brings about mechanical production, large-scale factory manufacture, professional operation and the application of IT technology, aiming to standardize the management approach, allocation of staff and workflow control. Breakthrough is made in HSR technology, industrial development and construction management, leading the progress of large-scale and high-standard HSR network construction.

Thanks to technical innovation, China has developed a sophisticated HSR technological system for 350km/h, making the country the pioneer in terms of railway running speed. The technology for 380km/h has been well verified as well. In the acceptance test in February 2013, the Beijing-Shanghai HSR proved to be “safe and stable, with all the technical parameters topping the list and all the requirements well met.”

The project wins over 53 patents for invention, 116 patents for application, 5 patents for design, 8 software copyrights, 9 nationally-recognized techniques, 14 monograph and 235 thesis.

By the end of 2014, the Beijing-Shanghai HSR has accumulatively carried 179 million person times, generating a revenue of about RMB76.28bn  and tax revenue of RMB 1.277bn. Profit is made only three years after opening.

The Beijing-Shanghai HSR provides safe, punctual, fast and comfortable traveling experience to the passengers and has improved the investment environment in the eastern part of the country, played a significant role in boosting the economic integration, industrial upgrade and accelerating the urbanization pace. It also contributes to further play the economic cluster effect, improve the capacity for emergency transport response and innovate the financing and investment system reform. Its environmentally-friendly and low-carbon performance underpins the economic and social progress of China. With Beijing-Shanghai HSR as the jewel in the crown, the brand of China’s HSR has been established, which promises advanced technology, safety, reliability, and superior performance in cost efficiency, and it also laid a solid foundation for exporting our HSR technologies to the world. HSR stands as the priority in the country’s “go global” endeavor and in the “Belt and road” initiative, showing to the world the best of China.

 

The Development and Application of Efficient and Eco-friendly Technology for AromaticsProduction

 

Aromatics are fundamental to the chemical industry, and they are widely used in three principal synthetic materials as well as pharmaceuticals, national defense, pesticides, building materials and other fields. As one of the most important aromatics, paraxylene accounts for the second largest consumption, and is closely related to people’s daily life. In 2014, China's consumption of paraxylene was about 20 million metric tons and the produced chemical fiber was equivalent to the cotton that would beproduced from about 15.33 million hectares of land. This made great contribution to guarding the “red line” of arable land which is 120 million hectares. China's paraxylene self-sufficiency rate is only about 50%. One important reason is that the production has been dependent on imported technology which is very expensive. Therefore the development of relevant industries in China is at the mercy of such situation. It has been the dream of several generations in chemical industry in China to develop their own Technology for Aromatics Production.

Technology for Aromatics Production includes processes and engineering technologies involving feed treatment and fractionation, aromatics isomerization and conversion, adsorptive separation, etc. It is highly integrated system which has been developed by overcoming many difficulties. Under the continuous supports by Ministry of Science and Technology and SINOPEC itself in the forms of National Key Basic Research Development Program (known as 973 Program) and SINOPEC top ten mostsignificant R&D projects, SINOPEC has successfully developed the efficient and eco-friendly Technology for Aromatics Productionoccupying a leading position worldwildly. The product separation and aromatic resources utilization efficiency are significantly improved, with substantial energy saving, consumption and solid wastesreduction. The Technology for Aromatics Production has achieved innovation in the following five aspects.

1. New greenprocess of feed treatment. Physical adsorption is replaced by chemical reaction, which is innovation in principle. The solid wastesare reduced by 98%.

2. New molecular sieve material with higher efficiency for the conversion and separation of aromatics. The conversion rate of heavy aromatics is increased by 70-80%. The resource utilization rate is increased by 5%. The adsorptive separation efficiency is increased by 10%.

3. Integrated innovative control method to achieve intelligent control.The rapid control of large flow rate change in short time can be carried out,thus the pressure fluctuation of the adsorbent chamber was significantly reduced. It has ensured the intrinsic safety, efficient and precise operation in a long run length.

4. New process with deep integration of energy for the aromatics complex. The plant operation has achieved the historic breakthrough from “power import” to “power export”. The comprehensive energy consumption per unit of product is reduced by 28%.

5. The key equipmentshave achieved “Created in China” through innovative design methods and manufacturing processes. These creations include the largest single cellheater, the multi-overflow tray column for aromatics complex in the world, and thepatented adsorbent chamber internal (ACI) with new structure achieving improved fluidmixing/distribution uniformity.

The project has obtained a total of more than 40 domestic and foreigngranted patents,forming complete independent intellectual property rights. It has also won 1 golden prize of Chinese invention and patent reward,1outstandingand 2 second awards of provincial prize for progress in science and technology. The  SINOPEC Technology for Aromatics Productionhas beencommercialized in Yangzi and Hainan Petrochemical Companies since 2011. A number of process units have been widely applied in China and extended to the Gulf States and regions, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe and so on. The industrial operation results show thatSINOPEC technology is efficient and eco-friendly that can reduce energy and material consumption significantly.

Through technological innovation, 95% of the equipment is designed and manufactured independently, achieving the practice of “Created in China”. The successful development and wide application of this project makes China the third country master the technology in the world. This technology has made particularly significant technological breakthrough and gainedgreat economic and social benefits. It has remarkably enhanced the technological level of aromatics production in China and improved our international competitiveness.