This award is conferred on those who have made major scientific discoveries in clarifying natural phenomena, characteristics and rules in fundamental research and applied fundamental research. It is divided into the First Prize and the Second Prize.

At the stage of primary evaluation, the State Natural Science Award is divided into 10 subject evaluation groups as follows: mathematics, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, biology, fundamental medical, information science, material science, engineer technology, mechanics.

After the candidates’ projects have passed the primary evaluation, overseas experts will be invited as referees for the evaluation of the projects. The experts will review the projects through network and submit comments and suggestions, which will be submitted to the State Natural Science Award evaluation committee.